Logic and Language

Logic and Language

Copyright © James R Meyer 2012 - 2017 www.jamesrmeyer.com

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Gödel’s numbering system is a way of representing any sentence of the formal language as a number. That means that every sentence of the formal language can be represented as a number. And not only sentences. Every proof sequence of sentences of the formal language can also be represented as a number (a proof sequence is a list of all the sentences that go together to make a proof of some sentence).

The Gödel numbering system is a one-to-one function. That simply means that it takes in one value, which is some combination of symbols of the formal language, and puts out another value, which is a number. Every combination of symbols is matched to a unique number, so that no two combinations can have the same number, and no two numbers can match to the same combination.

The way that it works is by a two-step process.

The first step is to take every symbol of the formal language and you define that a specific number is to be associated to every symbol, so that no two formal symbols are associated with the same number.

For example, suppose we take the sentence **{x + y}**, and we match numbers to the symbols.

We might define:

- the opening bracket symbol ‘
**{**’ to match to**4**, - the symbol
*‘*to match to**x**’**6**, - the symbol ‘
**+**’ to**7**, - the symbol
*‘*to**y**’**8**, - and the closing bracket symbol ‘
**}**’ to**12**.

That gives you the sequence of numbers, **4**, **6**, **7**, **8**, and **12**. But **4**, **6**, **7**, **8**, **12** is only a sequence of numbers and isn’t actually a number itself, so there’s a bit more to be done. We need to be able to make this sequence into a number, and we’ve to do that without losing any information, so that you can always convert the number back into the formal sentence.

It isn’t sufficient to take the numbers and put them together to make the **467812**, because that method can lose information. You can’t say whether the original sequence was **46**, **7**, **81**, **2**, or **4**, **67**, **8**, **1**, **2** or **4**, **6**, **78**, **12** or some other sequence.

To be sure that you can always get back the original information that you started with, Gödel devised a way of converting these sequences of numbers into numbers in a way that retains all the original information. The reverse process can be applied in order to retrieve the original information.

Gödel’s encoding system uses prime numbers (prime numbers are numbers that can only be divided by themselves and by one without leaving a remainder).

Gödel’s system takes the prime numbers in order, so that for example, to encode a sequence of five numbers, we start off with the first five prime numbers – which are **2**, **3**, **5**, **7** and **11**.

We now encode our sample sequence, which is **4**, **6**, **7**, **8**, **12** as follows:

Multiply the first prime, which is **2**, by itself **4** times. We use **4** times because **4** is the first number in our sequence. We call this raising **2** to the power of **4** and we denote this as **2 ^{4}**.

Then for the next prime number, which is **3**, we multiply it by itself by **6** times, **6** being by the next number in our sequence. This is called raising **3** to the power of **6**, and we denote this by **3 ^{6}**.

Do the same with the rest of the numbers. This give us

**2 ^{4}**,

where each bit works out as

**16**, **729**, **78125**, **5764801** and **3138428376721**.

Then we multiply these all together. We can denote that by **2 ^{4} · 3^{6} · 5^{7} · 7^{8} · 11^{12}** and that gives

Given a Gödel number, you can always reverse the process. So, given the number **16486713209345820741011250000**, first divide by the first prime number, which is **2**. Keep dividing by **2** until you don’t get an even division and you end up with a remainder, as follows:

**16486713209345820741011250000** divided by **2** gives:

**8243356604672910370505625000**

**8243356604672910370505625000** divided by **2** gives:

**4121678302336455185252812500**

**4121678302336455185252812500** divided by **2** gives:

**2060839151168227592626406250**

**2060839151168227592626406250** divided by **2** gives:

**1030419575584113796313203125**

**1030419575584113796313203125** divided by **2** gives:

**515209787792056898156601562**, with remainder **1**.

This gives the information about how many **2**s were multiplied by each other originally, which was **4**.

We repeat the process with the next prime number, until we get no remainder at all. And this will give you the information that originally we multiplied **2** by itself **4** times, **3** by itself **6** times, **5** by itself **7** times, **7** by itself **8** times, and **11** by itself **12** times. We can write that as **2 ^{4} · 3^{6} · 5^{7} · 7^{8} · 11^{12}**. That means our original number sequence was

And that means that, given the definition of which symbol matches to which number, that we can tell that we started with **{x + y}**. This means that this method of encoding gives a unique number that retains all the original information of any combination of symbols of the formal language.

That’s all there is to Gödel’s method of encoding the sentences of the formal language. For the full details of the actual Gödel numbering function that Gödel used, please see Gödel proof guide - the Gödel numbering function.

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There is now a new page Halbach and Zhang’s *Yablo without Gödel* which demonstrates the illogical assumptions used by Halbach and Zhang.

It has come to my notice that, when asked about the demonstration of the flaw in his proof (see A Fundamental Flaw in an Incompleteness Proof by Peter Smith PDF), Smith refuses to engage in any logical discussion, and instead attempts to deflect attention away from any such discussion. If any other reader has tried to engage with Smith regarding my demonstration of the flaw, I would be interested to know what the outcome was.

I found that making, adding or deleting footnotes in the traditional manner proved to be a major pain. So I developed a different system for footnotes which makes inserting or changing footnotes a doddle. You can check it out at Easy Footnotes for Web Pages (Accessibility friendly).

I have now added a new section to my paper on Russell O’Connor’s claim of a computer verified incompleteness proof. This shows that the flaw in the proof arises from a reliance on definitions that include unacceptable assumptions - assumptions that are not actually checked by the computer code. See also the new page Representability.

There is now a new page on Chaitin’s Constant (Chaitin’s Omega), which demonstrates that Chaitin has failed to prove that it is actually algorithmically irreducible.

13 May 2015 Good Math, Bad Math?

31 Mar 2015 Cranks and Crackpots

16th Mar 2015 Bishops Dancing with Pixies?

23rd Feb 2015 Artificial Intelligence

For convenience, there are now two pages on this site with links to various material relating to Gödel and the Incompleteness Theorem

– a page with general links:

– and a page relating specifically to the Gödel mind-machine debate:

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Copyright © James R Meyer 2012 - 2017

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